Wednesday, January 1, 2014

Presentations for 94th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting Atlanta, GA

Monday, 3 February 2014: 11:15 AM

Regional estimates of ground level Aerosol using Satellite Remote Sensing and Machine-Learning
Room C204 (The Georgia World Congress Center )
Nabin Malakar, City College of New York, New York, NY; and A. Atia, B. Gross, F. Moshary, S. Ahmed, and D. Lary
The ground-level aerosols are known to have harmful impact on people's health. The Moderate Imaging resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard aqua and terra satellites retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) at various bands. The comparison between the AOD measured from the satellite MODIS instruments and the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) system at 550 nm shows that there is a bias between the two data products. In this study we explore the factors that can delineate these extrema, and/or explain them statistically. We use the MODIS 3 km and 10 km resolution AOD products, and develop a machine-learning framework to compare the Aqua and Terra MODIS-retrieved AODs with the ground- based AERONET observations. The analysis uses several measured variables such as the MODIS AOD, surface type, land use, etc. as input in order to train a neural network in regression mode with a special emphasis on biases observed over non vegetative urban surfaces. The result is the estimator of the bias-corrected estimates of AOD. This research is part of our goal to provide air quality information, with special focus on the northeast region of the USA, which can also be useful for developing regional-level decision support tools.

Tuesday, 4 February 2014: 4:00 PM
A Regional NN estimator of PM2.5 using satellite AOD and WRF meteorology measurements
Room C206 (The Georgia World Congress Center )
Lina Cordero, City College of New York, New York, NY; and N. Malakar, D. Vidal, R. Latto, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed
Besides affecting the global energy balance, aerosols can have a significant health impact. In particular, extended exposure ultrafine particles is a major concern and regulations by the EPA are constituted to deal with this issue. Unfortunately, measuring surface aerosols over wide areas is costly and difficult so the potential of using satellite remote sensing and/or models becomes an important area of study. In this presentation, we explore the potential of combining meteorological data together with column integrated AOD within a Neural Network approach. To begin, the study is isolated to New York City where accurate AERONET AOD as well as Lidar derived PBL heights along with weather station meteorology is included. The main result of this isolated study illustrates that beyond AOD, the next important factor is the PBL height. This result motivates an extended study where MODIS mosaic AOD's are combined with WRF weather forecast model inputs including PBL height. To use WRF PBL, a matchup between WRF and Calipso is given for single layer cases illustrating strong correlations in spring and summer when PM25 is most important. In particular, we find that with seasonal training, we are able to generally improve on the existing approach utilized by the IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental air quality Applications) product which utilizes MODIS AOD and GEOS-CHEM PM25/AOD factors. In addition, we explore potential improvements that can occur if we can filter aloft plumes from the processing stream using the NAAPS air forecast model as well as the use of EOF's to fill missing gaps in the AOD spatial imagery.

Thursday, 6 February 2014: 9:00 AM
Use of NN based approaches to create high resolution climate meteorological forecasts
Room C101 (The Georgia World Congress Center )
Nabin Malakar, City College, New York, NY; and B. Gross, J. E. Gonzalez, P. Yang, and F. Moshary
The effects of global climate forecasts on regional scale domains requires that the low resolution GCM forecast data can be intelligently modified so that it can be injected into high resolution models such as terrestrial ecosystems etc. This is often called downscaling in the climate forecast literature and is usually performed using one of 2 different strategies. In the first strategy, the use of purely statistical approaches such as interpolation is applied to the GCM low resolution data to provide the high resolution data. Of course, the “high” resolution data really does not possess any high resolution inputs that can drive regional scale models. In particular, valuable high resolution information such as land surface identification and potential emission sources is not used. On the other hand, the potential of using regional Meteorological Models such as WRF can be attempted where the GCM conditions and the forecasted land surface properties are encoded into a future time slice. Of course, this approach is extremely computer intensive and the performance may not be worth the computer resources. In this presentation, we make use of another intermediate approach where low resolution meteorological data including both surface and column integrated parameters are combined with high resolution land surface classification parameters within a NN training scheme in an attempt to improve on purely interpolative approaches. In particular, our study region is the North East domain [{35N,45N} x {-85W,-65W}] . In particular, we focus on High and Low temperature extremes which are the outputs to be considered are obtained within the PRISM data set while the low resolution climatology parameters at low resolution (.5 deg) MET data including Tmax, Tmin, Rhum, Wind Speed, Radiation, Precip and Planetary Boundary Layer height are obtained from the ISI-MIP climatology forecast database. In addition, a high resolution land surface map is used based on the 2006 USGS land surface map. Preliminary results show that the NN approach can result in improved high resolution performance in areas where land surface features change rapidly. In addition, we will make comparisons using the WRF model for the time periods from 2006-2011.